Double Jeopardy? Gender Bias Against Women in Science

double-jeopardy-cover-smThis report examines whether the four distinct patterns of gender bias that have been documented in experimental social psychologists’ labs reflect what is actually occurring at work for women in the STEM fields, and particularly for women of color. The study documented by this report shows that gender bias exists, and it exists for women of color: 100% of the scientists interviewed reported encountering gender bias at work.


It is understood that women of color face “double jeopardy” because they encounter race as well as gender bias. Much less discussed is that women of color often experience gender bias in ways that differ significantly by race. This study explores how the experience of gender bias differs by race. The report also introduces a new approach to organizational change to interrupt gender bias, called Metrics-Based Bias Interrupters.

Joan C. Williams
Distinguished Professor & Hastings Foundation Chair
University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Katherine W. Phillips
Paul Calello Professor of Leadership & Ethics Senior Vice Dean
Columbia Business School, Columbia University

Erika V. Hall
Assistant Professor of Organization & Management Emory University
Goizueta Business School

This report is one of the many resources available from Tools for Change in STEM, a collaborative project lead by Professor Mary Ann Mason, of the University of California, Berkeley, Professor Joan C. Williams, of the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, and Janet Bandows Koster, CEO and Executive Director of the Association for Women in Science.

This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant Number (1106411). Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.


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